Kidney Stones

Who are at risk for kidney stones?

  • Male : female =3:1
  • Peak at 20 -40 years
  • Prevalence higher in mountain, desert, tropical areas and more in summer season
  • 7-12% lifetime risk of stone formation
  • Recurrence rate is very high .. approx. 10 @1 year and 50 % @10 years

Causes of stone formations?

  • Hereditary disorder: RTA, Cystinuria, xanthinuria, hypercalciuria, hyperoxaluria etc
  • Dietary excess: like oxalates, purine, Vit C, Calcium etc
  • Reduction of water intake/ dehydration
  • Sedentary lifestyles/ immobilisation
  • UTI with urea splitting organism
  • Severe urinary obstruction
  • Gi disorders eg- IBD
  • Myeloproliferative disorders
  • Hypercalcaemic disorders
  • Drug induced

Symptoms and sign?

  • Sudden severe colicky pain in the flanks/ groins
  • Sometimes accompanied with nausea and/or vomiting
  • Gross or microscopic haematuria
  • Fever if associated with infections
  • Rarely with symptoms of renal failure


  • Noncontrast CT scan is diagnostic method of choice

Others – Xray, USG, IVU etc